Marketing History

Marketing History

The worldwide popularity of marketing, as a subject for the study and practice of market activity, would probably mean that those who study and apply marketing know what they are studying and implementing. But, as I see, and I am convinced, as you know, this is often not the case. Among the huge number of reasons for the misunderstanding of what marketing is, there is one significant one – the lack of knowledge about the history of marketing.

Scientists have studied marketing as an independent discipline for only a little over a century, and over the course of its short history, the study of marketing has been influenced by many different academic movements, human quirks, and their priorities. Today, experts see marketing in a peculiar way and through the eyes of those who often benefit from a narrow, peculiar or simply shallow understanding of their audience about marketing. Pseudoscientific writers who are interested in large circulation rather than knowledge of the audience, consultants and trainers, as well as those for whom marketing is just a tool to achieve their goals.

Say, economists have made it a rule not to delve into the history of marketing. They benefit from the audience’s belief that marketing began with Adam Smith, and not from the first markets of antiquity, where the economy itself came from. Domestic “pseudo gurus convince everyone that marketing began with them, and they themselves are” number one in marketing. ” In the literature published by them, as well as in the matches of the army of many thousands of all kinds of “free” consultants, you will not find the dates of the first publications of the first marketing concepts that they talk about. They do not focus your attention on the authors of the terms. The examples given in their speeches and texts are taken by them from books and scientific works of authors of the past and they will never tell you that. In their books you will not find references to the source.

This can not only undermine the value of marketing knowledge, because, by such silence, intentionally or accidentally (well, if so), the general consensus about what is important in marketing is lost, but, worse, by distortion, substitution of concepts and appropriation of authorship of concepts and marketing methods, they are distorted and knowledge of marketing with the public, the principles of marketing are being turned over, allowing you to adapt marketing to false, thieves and vulgar personal opinions, your own benefit and frank profit.

If we do not know history, we can believe in anything and anyone! Before we begin to study marketing, we need to understand something about the history of marketing, as well as about the way that marketing experts went before us in disputes and contradictions and who formed this area of ​​knowledge and marketing practice. This is important and necessary so that we don’t be fooled, that we, by personal trial and error, do not make “discoveries”, maybe made a hundred years ago and correctly applied marketing in practice, looking back at the practice of past years, companies and specialists.

American marketing

What most marketing practitioners, as well as students and scholars, face when they begin to study the development of marketing is the overwhelming American dominance of history literature, descriptions of marketing concepts, and examples of successful marketing cases. Marketing textbooks, for example, even those published in America, disseminate examples of the activities of American corporations, like a carbon copy. These examples are sometimes adapted for other markets, but often not.

When setting out the history of marketing, I will obviously also pay great attention to the history of North American marketing, and this is no coincidence. Many of the earliest examples of systemic college education are related to American education, and most training programs have been developed there. The main thinkers in the field of marketing throughout the twentieth century have worked and continue to work there. They are a treasure in the marketing backbone. 

It is not surprising that I will talk about these people, institutions and their theoretical contribution to the formation and development of marketing around the world. But, striving to ensure historical authenticity, which is usually not traditionally observed in translated literature, I will try to tell and illustrate not just American marketing, but its theory and practice of its application around the world.

Start marketing

It is quite normal that not all countries have adopted key marketing practices at the same time and that someone needs to be the first in any business and in marketing in particular. The USA, for objective reasons, which were later accepted, comprehended and formed, and put into practice the concept that we understand today as “marketing”, although among American marketers there is a belief that the marketing idea itself is from Europe and a significant role in the formation of marketing belongs to German economic thought. In fact, the first marketing training was conducted there at the turn of the 20th century (Jones and Monieson, 1990).

Despite the booming interest in marketing in the United States, most countries, such as the United Kingdom, turned to marketing relatively late, despite the fact that there were several companies and entrepreneurs in the country that were marketing-oriented before they received Distribution of formal marketing doctrine. Among such companies, Cadbury Confectionery is mentioned (Corley, 1987; Fitzgerald, 1989).

Spain, however, survived its own “marketing revolution” even later. As for marketing in America, in the 70s in the USSR there was an attempt to use marketing, primarily for international trade, and timid attempts to somehow adapt marketing to the principles of socialist management and socialist relations occurred even later. In short, I would like to ask you to remember that the time of the formation of marketing, the spread of its theory and practice in different countries, is the result of often very specific political, social, technological conditions in the economies and political systems of these countries, and not at all the connection with the “marketing backwardness. “

For example, in pre-revolutionary America, merchants and industrialists were very disapproving of the practice of advertising – they called it “American fiction” and considered quackery (Art 1913). Conducting business on hundreds of millions of gold dollars, they were rather skeptical about marketing ideas. Probably, with the same level of neglect, today’s entrepreneurs relate to the ideas of social and green marketing and also ignore the ideas of their responsibility to consumers, employees and society.

I would like to draw the attention of marketing colleagues, university teaching staff and students to different attitudes towards marketing and historically confirmed different approaches to marketing ideas in different countries, and also many agency to give service one of them geek web solution I would like to advise you not to think of marketing as an indivisible, almost universally applicable concept , a kind of supernatural and supra-economic superstructure, and marketing practice — freely and unconditionally effectively replicated from country to country and “transcending cultures and contexts” (Cannon, 1980: 140).

Not all events

The second thing I would like to warn you about is that I ask you to accept the fact that not all events in marketing are presented in a historical tape. Firstly, the story does not end – it is being written now. The second thing I want to draw your attention to is the fact that today there is no “important” book that describes all historical events and which, as is usually done with Internet copy-pasteurists, is transferred digitally to the website in a couple of days . The reasons for the absence of such a book (and my site is no exception) is that marketing was born at the intersection of sciences and there is literature on the economics of market activity, on the sociology of a consumer society, on advertising, on the history of the formation of PR.

In short, there is a huge amount of literature, monographs, articles and opinions, but there is simply no system material covering all marketing activities for a period of more than a hundred years of development. It is in attempts to solve the inhuman task of systematizing historical events that are somehow related to marketing, and a ribbon of historical marketing events is created (and will be created over a dozen years).

Sources

If we talk not about personal relationships, but about historical facts, then each of them should be determined, the date should be fixed and confirmed by at least two sources worthy of attention. Therefore, in the primary sources: books, monographs, photo and video evidence, archives of documents, historical reference books and old books. Each of the events I will confirm by direct speech of the author of the event, witnesses, venerable marketers with phrases, quotes, photographs and screenshots, as well as a reference to the source.

Therefore, if under any article there is no primary source, then what is written is crap! That is how this should be treated. This material appeared in the tape not by accident, because there is a significant opinion and confidence to consider this opinion as significant, but there is no confirmation to this yet. Those materials from the primary sources, which are open, can be downloaded here. An indication of the material and its lack of a link to download means the absence of the right to popularize and distribute it. For similar material, you are welcome to the libraries, archives and authors of these materials.

Friends, as usual, I do not take money from you. All posted materials can be used. You use all these materials “at your own peril and risk”, to your own advantage and with your own goals and understanding of their achievement. You can get to the stream of historical marketing events from the main menu above.

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